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Months are either 29 or 30 days, corresponding to the 29½-day lunar cycle.Years are either 12 or 13 months, corresponding to the 12.4 month solar cycle.
So whether you're looking for a date or just want a few friends to chat to, this is the site for you! This is easier to understand when you examine the keyboard illustration below and see how it relates to the leap years above.In addition, Yom Kippur should not fall adjacent to Shabbat, because this would cause difficulties in coordinating the fast with Shabbat, and Hoshanah Rabbah should not fall on Saturday because it would interfere with the holiday's observances. (Before the Common Era), which are commonly used by scholars today.The extra month is inserted before the regular month of Adar (known in such years as Adar II, Adar Sheini or Adar Beit).Note that Adar II is the "real" Adar, the one in which Purim is celebrated, the one in which yahrzeits for Adar are observed, the one in which a 13-year-old born in Adar becomes a Bar Mitzvah. In the fourth century, Hillel II established a fixed calendar based on mathematical and astronomical calculations." The other man smiled slyly and replied, "Same as always: the 25th of Kislev." This humorous comment makes an important point: the date of Jewish holidays does not change from year to year.
Holidays are celebrated on the same day of the Jewish calendar every year, but the Jewish year is not the same length as a solar year on the civil calendar used by most of the western world, so the date shifts on the civil calendar.The Jewish calendar is based on three astronomical phenomena: the rotation of the Earth about its axis (a day); the revolution of the moon about the Earth (a month); and the revolution of the Earth about the sun (a year).These three phenomena are independent of each other, so there is no direct correlation between them.However, this does not necessarily mean that the universe has existed for only 5700 years as we understand years. Similarly, the Jewish calendar has different starting points for different purposes.Many Orthodox Jews will readily acknowledge that the first six "days" of creation are not necessarily 24-hour days (indeed, a 24-hour day would be meaningless until the creation of the sun on the fourth "day"). The names of the months of the Jewish calendar were adopted during the time of Ezra, after the return from the Babylonian exile.The month of Nissan occurs 11 days earlier each year for two or three years, and then jumps forward 30 days, balancing out the drift.