Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy.
Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy.The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity., literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament.Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes.With its emphasis on notions of social contract and the collective will of all the voters, democracy can also be characterised as a form of political collectivism because it is defined as a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in lawmaking.
Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy, and it had two distinguishing features: the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial offices, All eligible citizens were allowed to speak and vote in the assembly, which set the laws of the city state.
During the Middle Ages, there were various systems involving elections or assemblies, although often only involving a small part of the population.
These included: Most regions in medieval Europe were ruled by clergy or feudal lords.
In the Apella, Spartans elected leaders and cast votes by range voting and shouting.
Aristotle called this "childish", as compared with the stone voting ballots used by the Athenians.
The Romans invented the concept of classics and many works from Ancient Greece were preserved.